Reinforcement and Types Of Reinforcement
Reinforcement concept denotes an events that influences the probability of response to a stimulus being produced under similar condition. If the occurence of an event increases its probability it is called Positive Reinforcement or if the termination of an events increases its probability it is called Negative Reinforcement.
In the teaching Reinforcement means use of such stimuli or to present them or to remove them so that the probability it is called Negative Reinforcement.
In the teaching process Reinforcement means use of such stimuli or to present them or to present them or to remove them so that the probability of a response may be increased. In this process the reward given by the teachers or the words in appreciation, functions as stimuli and behavior occuring as a result of these stimuli is termed as response.
Positive Reinforcement should be used most of the time inside the class.
For example: Positive Reinforcement increases the people more and more participation in the class just like food, Toffee, Clapping, Reward, Water, Social approval etc.
Positive Reinforcement are of two types
Positive Verbal Reinforcement
Positive Non Verbal
Positive Verbal Reinforcement: The teachers uses the accepting statement in order to make the learning of the pupils permanent.In this way the teacher supports the suggestions of the pupil and uses the encouraging languages like- O.K, Good, Excellent, Very Good, Go a head, Alright etc.
Positive Non-Verbal: Some times the teachers uses non verbal clues to encourage students in the class, such as smiling, Listening the students very carefully.
Negative Reinforcement can be weaken the desirable behavior . It can cause and decrease in the participation of the pupil.
Similarly the negative Reinforcement are two types
Negative Verbal Reinforcement
Negative Non Verbal Reinforcement
Negative Verbal Reinforcement :Negative Verbal Reinforcement is necessary to remove same stimuli in order to make learning permanent such as wrong, absurd answer.
Negative Non Verbal Reinforcement : At some occasion in the class the teachers uses some negative Reinforcement such as looking with the angry, striking feet on the floor etc. But the teacher should be aware of such negative Reinforcement .
It is essential to observe the following precaution while using the skill.
- Variety of new statement should be for Reinforcement. The same statement should not be repeated again and again.
- Beware of excessive use of Reinforcement
- Reinforcement should be for all the students and not for response makers or intellgence children.
- Reinforcement should be given by using appropriate words and statement.