In 1956, Benjamin S. Bloom has associated in the university of Chicago have constructed Taxonomy for description of Instructional Objectives. Bloom describe significant and importance of Teaching Objectives.
According to him, “There are 6 Levels of each Teaching Objectives”.
Bloom describe the three areas of learning
- Cognitive Domain
- Affective Domain
- Psychomotor Domain
Areas of learning
|Cognitive Domain||Affective Domain||Psychomotor Domain|
|Analysis||conceptualization||Complex Overt Response|
This domain include those educational objectives which are concerned with the recalling of knowledge on recognition of knowledge and development of intellectual activities and skills . In this domain the main focus is on the development of curriculum and the objectives can be made more and more clear while developing the curriculum.
In Knowledge level of Teaching the teacher give information ideas, principle, concept, theroies to develop ability of recall, recognition in students. to access knowledge level objective we conduct multiple choice question and short question answer.
It is the lowest level of teaching.
In Comprehension, there is a development of abilities to translate, to interpritate, to comprehend, to summarise, to discriminate, to verify, to classify, to communicate in their own words.
At Application level of teaching we try to develop ability to select , transfer, use , complete the problem in students.
In this teaching level , we try to develop ability to distinguish, relate , co-relate, making choices in students.
In this level, we try to develop ability to integrate, ability to combine, ability to originate, ability to planning in students.
In Evaluation level , we try to develop, critical ability in students, ability to access and judgement. Evaluation is the top level of Teaching Objective.
This domain includes those objectives which explain the interest attitudes and change in behaviour . Affective Objectives are further classified into Six categories – Receiving , Responding, Valuing, conceptualization, Organisation, characterization.
Receiving is to orient the learner to learn. This is the first step he is willing to learn what is being given to him.
It comes after the learner has given his attention.Responding includes willingness to respond and getting satisfaction by responding
Valuing causes self-motivation in the children and makes them committed to involve themselves in activities.
Develop into children certain values which help them to organise themselves to do things on their own.
It enables the children to act constantly in accordance with the values they have develop.
The third domain of this taxonomy is the Psychomotor domain. The main objective of this domain is to provide training of physical activities . The Objective of this domain are very helpful in developing the skills. These skills have much importance in the vocational and industrial training.
The ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activity. This ranges from sensory stimulation, through cue selection, to translation.
Readiness to act. It includes mental, physical, and emotional sets. These three sets are dispositions that predetermine a person’s response to different situations (sometimes called mindsets).
The early stages in learning a complex skill that includes imitation and trial and error. Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing.
This is the intermediate stage in learning a complex skill. Learned responses have become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency.
Complex Overt Response
The skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns. Proficiency is indicated by a quick, accurate, and highly coordinated performance, requiring a minimum of energy. This category includes performing without hesitation, and automatic performance. For example, players are often utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football, because they can tell by the feel of the act what the result will produce.
Skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements.
Creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem. Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills.