Lev Vygotsky’s Theory of Development

Lev Vygotsky’s Theory of Development

To define cognitive development Vygotsky given social cultural theory of development on social – cultural interaction theory of development. Vygotsky define society and social interaction as a inseparable part of cognitive development. Social interaction word is used for Vygotsky.


  • ZPD ( Zone of Proximal Development )

  • Scaffolding

  • Language and Thought

Lev Vygotsky's Theory of Development

Lev Vygotsky’s Theory of Development

ZPD ( Zone of Proximal Development )

Proximal =Possible + Maximum

ZPD is that Zone / area / environment in which child himself construct his knowledge , experience and learning in presence of any more knowledgeable other (MKO , i.e. Teacher, guide, coach, peer, friends, computers etc.).

  • In ZPD What child can learn by himself
  • What child can learn in presence of MKO.

ZPD= Difference between self learning  – MKO learning

As a teacher ZPD can be utilize by creating facilitating environment for self learning. By enhancing level of interaction with students.


Scaffolding ->change -> level/amount -> Support ->Child ->Performance

Scaffolding is a change in the level of support given to child according to his performance. It is a temporary support given to child.


Changing means to facilitate learning opportunities according to mental level, interest, learning style and individual difference of the child.


To motivate child to do positive work. Give hints , clues to child for doing himself and also give various examples related to the topic.


Performance does not mean achievement of more and more number but it stands for self realisation of learning.

Language and Thought

According to Vygotsky ,

  • Language and thoughts develops together.
  • learning and development are parallel process.
  • In cognitive development language is important medium and play very significant role.
  • In early developmental stage language is not meaning less, ego-centric, im-mature.

Vygotsky describe two types of language in the child

  1. Outer language
  2. Inner language / private speech.

Outer language :

outer language is used by child for social communication talking to others and communication with family members.

Inner language

Inner language or private speech is used by child ” for self guidance , to regulate his behaviour, to guide, to plan and to control ” communicate his ideas and behaviour.


One Comment

  1. Refer to vygotsky’s views to examine how learners’ culture influence performances in cognitive tasks during your practicum how do I attack this question?

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